consciousness and unconsciousness
The quality of consciousness is generally associated with living beings, while the quality of the unconscious is predominant over inanimate objects, and separation is made between humans and animals in terms of awareness of the five senses because they are characterized by life and the ability to breathe, which is the feature shared by the two species; however, the best characteristic that distinguishes between them is the quality of the mind, and the ancient psychologists studied the qualities of consciousness and the unconscious, and they talked about the quality of consciousness at the level of the human soul, and they also concluded that the quality of the unconscious is present in the human soul, and it is limited to inanimate objects only.
The focus of the ancient philosophers of Greece and those who followed them were on the human soul. Ancient psychologists, such as Descartes, they focused on the quality of consciousness, while modern psychologists such as Freud and after him focused on the quality of the unconscious. Exalted be He, and they said: God is alive, He has a spirit and a mind, and thus He possesses full consciousness in its highest state. It is dominated by the characteristic of the unconscious while living beings have life and a soul, and they possess the characteristics of consciousness and the unconscious, and a person has a life and a soul, or a soul and a mind, and he possesses the characteristics of consciousness and the unconscious as well, and they concluded that the goal of consciousness is to preserve life and make it better.
The relationship of consciousness with the unconscious
Carl Jung explained in linking awareness to the subconscious that when an idea is absent from a person's mind, this does not mean that it was lost, but rather it was momentarily separated from consciousness and became within the scope of the subconscious; However, these thoughts return later through the subconscious, and the influence of the unconscious thoughts remains in the conscious mind, which is what the subconscious includes, just as the ideas and images in the subconscious space lose their energy and become somewhere below the threshold of awareness, and what is meant by that is that they received a small part of human interests; to create a new space for new ideas, perceptions and impressions in the realm of awareness.
As for dreams, they are the language of the unconscious, and they are symbols of facts and events that do not appear realistically, and feelings and thoughts can appear in the form of symbols in dreams. counselor of consciousness; As it expresses specific matters that may occur in the future, and this means that it is a source of correct information, and psychologists confirm that dreams sometimes provide advice and guidance to a person, so Young advised himself through a dream.
Carl Jung described the unconscious associated with dreams as a type of general consciousness that is adjacent to human awareness and conscious knowledge, and it is a type of thinking that results from a human group whose members are very similar in the degree of the union. On it, and he becomes aware of different perceptions, and in the interpretation of dreams a conversion of symbols from a dream to reality, and thus it is converted into conscious knowledge, and transferred from feeling to the subconscious, so dreams become recognized symbols among people.
The science of consciousness appeared and was distinguished in the seventeenth century by the philosopher Descartes, then other philosophers followed his path, and the concept of consciousness was new in the science of philosophy at the time. Where the concept of the unconscious was of little importance, and modern Cartesian philosophy defined the mind as the basis of the individual's responsibility and its reward for his actions; However, modern philosophy turned this idea upside down, and proceeded to marginalize the mind and show that it is controlled by instincts and subconscious forces.
Consciousness is either external or internal; The external consciousness is what is related to the external world, and it is related to everything that comes through the senses and the things that follow it, such as imagination, memory, and the mind is the highest degree of awareness, while the internal awareness is what is related to the inner world and psychological phenomena, and it is What is known as intuitive awareness that takes place through the mind and leads to introspection, and awareness may be direct, meaning that it is related to the present and reality, or indirect, which is related to the past and memories.
Consciousness gives a person the freedom to choose his thoughts, feelings, memories, and actions. It also gives him the ability to analyze, compose, and deduce, and makes the individual integrated and adaptive with those around him. to the unconscious.
Sigmund Freud was the first to try experimentally to explore the background of the unconscious leading to consciousness, and he relied on the hypothesis that dreams are related to consciousness, and they do not occur by mere coincidence, just as dreams start from the process of free association, which is a method discovered by Sigmund Freud to treat mental patients, and to ensure the continuity of the relationship between him And among his patients, he used to ask the patient to give free rein to his thoughts without placing any conditions on them, and thus the patient would speak with everything that was in his mind without hiding any details, whatever their nature, so he would mention them all; Whether it is mundane, confidential, critical, or painful, even if it is trivial as well.
Using free association, Freud was able to reveal a lot of psychological issues. Freud noticed that the individual's recollection of some incidents that occurred in the past is difficult because of their being painful or disgraceful to the soul, so the person forgets them, and remembering them later becomes difficult. because of the resistance that prevents its reappearance, and Freud's observations resulting from the process of free association were the basis for building the psychoanalytic method later on; However, Jung refuted Freud's theory and dreams, and said: Dreams have a special significance, and a new theory of the unconscious appeared on his hand, and he defined the unconscious as an essential part of an individual's life, which is as important as awareness, and Jung described it as the thinking world that expresses the ego, and this is a definition Contrary to Freud's hypothesis, who considered the subconscious to be just a hole that allows all the desires that are repressed inside the soul to come out.