Types of courts

Types of courts

Types of courts

Courts are divided into several types, the most important of which are the following:

  • Criminal courts: dealing with the trial of proven crimes in the name of the people; Because these crimes are not only against individuals, but against an entire society, and the people are represented by an employee known as the Public Prosecutor, Attorney General, or police officer, and deals with similar cases of perpetrators of crimes and their criminal procedures with complete impartiality without any allegations or defense, then the defendant is convicted or acquitted through a panel known as a jury.
  • Civil or regular courts: This type of court deals with disputes and private disputes between individuals, companies, or private institutions, such as a dispute over the terms of a contract or liability for a car accident. Resorting to these courts is voluntary because the people are not represented by this type of court; Such as the presence of the Public Prosecutor in the criminal courts, because the interest of the civil court revolves around the availability of finding fair and acceptable rules for resolving disputes fairly and peacefully.
  • Courts of general jurisdiction: This type of court is not limited to a particular part. such as civil or criminal courts, which they can deal with most types of cases except some; such as immigration cases, which are transferred to specialized courts, and this type of court is the most common, and it is described as the supreme Court; Because it is authorized to look into serious criminal cases and important civil cases based on large sums of money.
  • Courts with limited jurisdiction: This type of court is considered to have limited jurisdiction, but it can exercise great power in cases related to its jurisdiction, and the jurisdiction of these courts varies from one country to another, and among these courts are the following:
  • Inheritance Court: It is concerned with managing the property and inheritance of deceased persons.
  • Commercial courts: are the courts that deal with disputes between merchants.
  • Labor Courts: These are the courts that deal with disputes between employers and employees.
  • Courts of Appeal: They are collective bodies consisting of several judges, through which the parties to the conflict are seen, witnesses and evidence are heard, and the facts are analyzed to come up with a fair result in applying the law. These courts also review the work of the courts of first instance, which usually consist of only one judge, and correct any error that occurs. about her.
  • Constitutional Courts: The formal powers of these courts differ greatly from one country to another, as a result of the great democratic transition in the late twentieth century, which caused the proliferation of constitutional courts responsible for constitutional reviews and councils.

international justice Court

The International Court of Justice is defined as the main judicial organ of the United Nations, as it was established under the Charter of the United Nations in 1945 AD, and it began working a year after its establishment, and it is located in the Peace Palace in The Hague in the Netherlands, and it is the only organ that is not located in New York among 6 organs belonging to the United Nations.

The International Court of Justice consists of 15 judges elected by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council every 9 years. French and English are the official languages. The International Court of Justice was established to settle disputes between countries and issue advisory opinions on legal issues referred by the United Nations organs and its special agencies.

Definition of court

The court is defined as an institution established by the government to resolve disputes and resolve them under the banner of law, identify the crime and its perpetrators, and raise the appropriate punishment for the event. The court also resorts to providing peaceful ways to resolve disputes between people that they cannot resolve by themselves.

Reasons for the existence of courts

Courts exist for several reasons. It is as follows:

  • Protect the constitutional rights of individuals under the law.
  • Deciding all cases in a fair and equal manner by allowing the parties to have their cases heard in the presence of a jury or judge.
  • Resolve disputes by applying laws fairly and rationally.
  • Impartially applying the law, taking into account human rights, regardless of the wishes of states or public opinion.
  • The court relies on the law and what the evidence proves, without being biased toward a particular group, or questioning something.
  • The rule of law by achieving justice among individuals and guaranteeing freedoms, would strengthen the social system and provide protection for all equally.
  • Equality between individuals and the state.

the law

The law is defined according to what was stated in the Black Legal Dictionary as a set of rules and behaviors with mandatory legal force that is determined by the controlling authority, and accordingly requires citizens to follow it, and those who violate it entail provisions and penalties, and the existence of the law in a country has the following effects:

  • Maintaining peace and stability.
  • Preserving individual rights.
  • Protection of minorities.
  • Promote social justice.

The main types of the legal system

The legal systems in the world are divided into two main types, which are as follows:

  • The common law system: It is characterized by several characteristics, as follows:
  • It is not based on a written constitution or codified laws.
  • Judicial decisions are compulsory and binding, as decisions issued by the Supreme Court cannot be annulled except by a decision of the court itself or through legislation.
  • It gives great freedom in contracts, as it contains only some mandatory provisions to protect consumers from the private sector.
  • All things are permitted unless expressly prohibited by common law.
  • The civil law system: The civil law system is a written law, and it is characterized by several features. It is as follows:
  • It is based on a written constitution with specific laws through which rights and duties are clarified, such as tax law, constitutional law, or administrative law, which is usually less codified given the tendency of most administrative court judges to act under the banner of common law.
  • The legislation issued by civil law is considered binding for all, except in some civil, criminal, and commercial courts that tend to follow some of the previous rulings. As for the constitutional and administrative courts, they cancel most laws and regulations and follow the civil system.

Types of laws

Law systems are divided into two main types as follows:

  • The civil law system: is related to rights, and the offender is required to provide assistance, treatment, or compensation, and it needs proof and evidence.
  • The criminal law system: is related to the violation of laws, and the perpetrator is liable to a fine, imprisonment, or both together, and the sentence is proven without any doubt.

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